Media violence seems to have the strongest impact on preschool children, in part because they are still learning social norms and inhibitions against behaving aggressively. Prosocial effects of watching television (media)are strongest for slightly older children, speaking at about age seven or eight. The influence of media on fear and anxiety is common throughout childhood, although the types of content that upset children differ with age. Younger children are frightened more by fantasy portrayals; older primary school children and preteens, more by realistic content, including the news.
Children differ in the degree to which they believe that what they see on the screen is realistic. When media story lines seem realistic, children are likely to pay closer attention to what they are watching and presumably exert more cognitive effort in processing the information. Shows perceived as being real may also encourage children to imagine themselves in the characters’ place. And indeed, television (media)violence has a heightened effect on children who perceive television (media)as realistic.
On the other hand, children who are able to discount television (media)as unrealistic will have a less intense fear reaction to a scary television (media)portrayal.
Other variable in children’s susceptibility to the media is the extent to which they identify with characters and real people featured on the screen. Children begin developing attachments to favorite media characters during the preschool years.
Over the last two decades, the internet has become truly widespread, and there is no doubt that these new means of communication influenced and profoundly changed many substantial aspects of our lives. Email usage became standard, online dating sites multiplied, social networks’ popularity has been spectacularly growing, all giving evidence of the noteworthy role that online communication plays in our moral standing nowadays and of the very different opportunities we have now as compared to the situation some twenty years ago.
It is probably the young people that are naturally the most apt to exploit fully these opportunities, and there are several ways in which the means of online communication may impact greatly on their life as compared to the generation of their parents.
The pattern of crime in the USA has been changing over time. The current state of crime shows a decline compared to what it was in early 20th century.The annual uniform crime reports by the federal bureau of investigation ( FBI) gives an in-depth description of the variation of crime rates in the USA since the colonial period. It indicates that although there was general prevalence of crime in USA during the colonial era the decline in these is nosediving. This rate escalated during and after the second world war two. This trend took an upward rise through 1970s, reaching its peak in early 1990s. Just after 1990’s the rate of crime in the USA begun to take a downward trend. This trend reversed to levels that were recorded back in 1960’s. FBI reports has given a definition of the nature and type of crime reported range from violet crime to property crime. Violent crime which features prominently include robbery, forcible rape and aggravated.This type of crime in USA has been reported to be declining since the colonial era.
Apart from the above type of crime properly crime has also proved to be an issue in the USA. This crime involves burglary, larceny arson and motor vehicle theft. This crime also has show positive trend of declining especially after early 1990’s
Despite the changing trends of time in the United States in the early 20th Century this standard was still high compared to their counter parts in some parts of the Western Europe. City like Chicago in the US which had a population slightly above two million reported 198 cases of homicides. This report was not unique to Chicago alone a host of other American cities like New York had similar status. When this rate was compared to those of other European major cities such as London which recorded only 45 cases of homicides despite its population being three times that of Chicago, was still very high.
The Second World War brought a lot of economic and social issues to those countries that were affected. In the United States of America the impact of the was an escalation of crime rate. This trend increased from 1970s through to early 1990s. During this period violent crime increased four times between 1960 and its peak in 1991. On the other hand property crime increased to a double the initial percentage over the same period.
During this period the government took a radical decision to curb this problem. The government increased the number of police officers. The move made it possible for security to be intensified around the major cities in the United States.
The move by President Bill Clinton to sign the violent crime and law enforcement Act on 16th September 1994,made it possible for improvement of the state and local laws. The program which took six years to yield significant results was a welcome remedy to ever increasing rate of crime. Although the critics saw this as an unprecedented misuse of public money, the proponents of the law including the president praised the law.
In conclusion, the crime in the United States has been a major concern for several decades. The rates of crime has been varying over time. Since the colonial era the crime rate has been constant but after the Second World War the trend increased continuously to early 20th Century. The government took drastic action aimed at reversing the trend and the results was positive a sharp decline in the rate of crime in the United States of America.
Therefore the united states citizens can be more secure now than they were years back…..
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